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ELEC5101: Antennas and Propagation (2014 - Semester 2)

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Unit: ELEC5101: Antennas and Propagation (6 CP)
Mode: Normal-Day
On Offer: Yes
Level: Postgraduate
Faculty/School: School of Electrical & Information Engineering
Unit Coordinator/s: Dr Lin, Zihuai
Session options: Semester 2
Versions for this Unit:
Site(s) for this Unit: http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/ELEC5101/index.html
Campus: Camperdown/Darlington
Pre-Requisites: None.
Brief Handbook Description: The basics of antenna radiation are introduced with emphasis on the important performance characteristics of the radiation field pattern (in 3 dimensions) and feed impedance. The omnidirectional and Hertzian dipole antennas (both hypothetical in practise but robust theoretically) provide the starting point to analyse real antenna operation. Mutual coupling between close antennas and important 'ground' imaging effects lead to the design of antenna arrays to increase gain and directivity. Aperture antennas and frequency broadbanding techniques are introduced. Ionospheric propagation is discussed and also the the reception efficiency of receiving antennas which allows consideration of a Transmitter - Receiver 'Link budget'. The important 'Pocklington' equation for a wire dipole is developed from Maxwell's equations and leads to the numerical analysis of wire antennas using 'Moment' methods. Real world applications are emphasised throughout and are reinforced by the hands on laboratory program which includes design projects.
Assumed Knowledge: None.
Timetable: ELEC5101 Timetable
Time Commitment:
# Activity Name Hours per Week Sessions per Week Weeks per Semester
1 Laboratory 3.00 1 13
2 Lecture 2.00 1 13
3 Independent Study 1 13
T&L Activities: Lecture: Each Lecture employs an Audio Visual display making full use of computer resources and Maple`s 3 Dimensional abilities.

Independent Study: An absolute minimum of 4 hours per week will be expected making full use of the website resources and reading material outside the Lecture content to make the necessary inroads in to a very important and complex subject area.

Attributes listed here represent the key course goals (see Course Map tab) designated for this unit. The list below describes how these attributes are developed through practice in the unit. See Learning Outcomes and Assessment tabs for details of how these attributes are assessed.

Attribute Development Method Attribute Developed
Sudents will be able to assess the balance between theory and practise in solving a specified antenna problem. Design (Level 4)
Understand the fundamental requirements of antenna performance, propagation issues and the concept of an antenna link budget, design of a broad variety of Antenna systems, and computer based analysis. Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 4)
Analysis of antenna systems in lab and project work Maths/Science Methods and Tools (Level 4)
The Laboratory work is presented in the form of a detailed Logbook. Communication (Level 2)
Group interaction in the Laboratory to tackle testing design challenges. Project and Team Skills (Level 2)

For explanation of attributes and levels see Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table.

Learning outcomes are the key abilities and knowledge that will be assessed in this unit. They are listed according to the course goal supported by each. See Assessment Tab for details how each outcome is assessed.

Design (Level 4)
1. Ability to analyse and design solutions for antennas operating up to and including the microwave frequency level, by drawing on concepts and principles of antenna theory and practice.
Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 4)
2. Ability to demonstrate an understanding of antenna theory and practise.
3. Ability to demonstrate an understanding of antenna performance, as well as signal propagation and the associated link budget to the extent of the material presented.
4. Ability to demonstrate an understanding of the process of designing a broad variety of antenna systems using principles, concepts and tools taught throughout the course.
5. Ability to develop the fundamental 'Pocklington Equation' for wire antennas which leads to the powerful computer based 'Moment Method'of analysis.
Communication (Level 2)
6. Ability to write and maintain a laboratory log book to communicate problem-solving activities by using clear and concise language, sketches and diagrams at a technical level fitting for the tasks performed.
Project and Team Skills (Level 2)
7. Ability to conduct team work by assuming various roles as needed, demonstrating initiative and receptiveness to the viewpoints of others in the group so as to tackle and test design challenges.
Assessment Methods:
# Name Group Weight Due Week Outcomes
1 Final Exam No 60.00 Exam Period 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
2 Report Yes 40.00 Multiple Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Assessment Description: Final Exam: This is an 'open book' examination where students are expected to demonstrate their full understanding of the course content and to be able to demonstrate their ability to tackle unusual antenna problems.

Report: The practical program provides real hands on experience of the important aspects of antenna operation. Students are able to get a feel for the fields in space which cannot be seen, a very real understanding of antenna patterns is acquired and the hugely important imaging and mutual impedance effects are well illustrated. Students also experience the performance of satellite reception antennas.
Grading:
Grade Type Description
Standards Based Assessment Final grades in this unit are awarded at levels of HD for High Distinction, DI (previously D) for Distinction, CR for Credit, PS (previously P) for Pass and FA (previously F) for Fail as defined by University of Sydney Assessment Policy. Details of the Assessment Policy are available on the Policies website at http://sydney.edu.au/policies . Standards for grades in individual assessment tasks and the summative method for obtaining a final mark in the unit will be set out in a marking guide supplied by the unit coordinator.
Policies & Procedures: See the policies page of the faculty website at http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/student-policies/ for information regarding university policies and local provisions and procedures within the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies.
Prescribed Text/s: Note: Students are expected to have a personal copy of all books listed.
  • Antennas
Recommended Reference/s: Note: References are provided for guidance purposes only. Students are advised to consult these books in the university library. Purchase is not required.
Online Course Content: http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/ELEC5101/index.html
Note on Resources: Powerpoint 'Movies' develop radiation into free space with time. Throughout the development 3 - dimensional radiation are developed using the 'Maple' computer program which is available for student use in the Laboratory.

Note that the "Weeks" referred to in this Schedule are those of the official university semester calendar https://web.timetable.usyd.edu.au/calendar.jsp

Week Description
Week 1 The course is introduced with a pictorial review of everyday antennas which we will encounter in the course. Basic ideas of radiation fields and the important links with RF transmission lines are developed.
Week 2 Two hypothetical antennas are introduced - the 'Omnidirectional' and the 'Hertzian' dipole are shown to be theoretically precise and can be used to to analyse the performance of the half wave dipole antenna - which is very real and widely used.
Week 3 We develop the 'radiation patterns' of antennas in 3 - dimensional space - these patterns are always of the "Electric" field. Boundary conditions at a perfect conducting surface are reviewed and and lead to the importance of imaging and its effects on radiation patterns. We consider a very simple image antenna which is used world wide to guide the final approach and landing of aircraft.
Week 4 We meet the important 'quarter wave' monopole antenna and learn how 'folding' affects the input (drive) impedance. The corner reflector antenna is introduced at this time because we make extensive us of it in the Laboratory.
Week 5 We review the main steps in our development thus far. We then look at using arrays of antennas to improve the performance. We find that Fourier Transforms also apply to antennas. We meet the 'Schelkunoff' theory of 'Linear Arrays' which is a design tool to meet a required antenna array specification. We discuss the Australian 'Jindalee - Over the Horizon' radar. We meet the important and very widely used 'Yagi - Uda' antenna.
Week 6 We have our first look at the fields close to an antenna - its 'near' field.
Aperture antennas are then introduced.
Week 7 Reciprocity is discussed. This leads to consideration of the antenna as a receiver with discussion of the effective "catching/receiving area" of a receiving antenna. We can then consider the performance of the 'Link' budget which applies to a simple transmitting - receiving antenna system. We introduce a different class of 'Travelling Wave' antennas which are able to operate over a broad band of frequencies.
Week 8 We review Maxwell's Equations - explaining precisely what they mean in the antenna context.
We design a variety of travelling wave antennas - which are typically used at HF for ionospheric propagation. We consider the problems of Very Low Frequency antennas.
Week 9 To solve Maxwell with antennas we make use of "potentials". This allows us to quite formally analyse the Hertzian dipole which we have used extensively earlier in the course. We then introduce the computer analysis of antennas using the 'Moment' method.
Week 10 We develop the important 'Pocklington' equation for a wire antenna. We proceed to simplify that using an approach due to Richmond which seriously simplifies the computer implementation.
Week 11 We develop the numerical analysis of a simple (short) dipole using the 'Moment' method. The use of 'Patch' antennas with microstrip lines is described as well as antennas developed from waveguide components.
Week 12 Near field and mutual coupling analysis of half wave dipole antennas.
Week 13 Course review/Revision. Specific query response.
STUVAC (Week 14) Students with difficulties are encouraged to send email queries to which comprehensive 'Feedback Responses' are provided on the course web page.
Exam Period Students are encouraged to take their comprehensive laboratory notebook with them in to the (Open Book) examination session and it is then required to be submitted with their examination paper.
Assessment Due: Final Exam

Course Relations

The following is a list of courses which have added this Unit to their structure.

Course Year(s) Offered
Master of Engineering (Wireless) 2012
Computer Engineering 2010
Electrical 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Electrical Engineering / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering / Commerce 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Bioelectronics) 2011, 2012
Electrical Engineering (Bioelectronics) / Arts 2011, 2012
Electrical Engineering (Bioelectronics) / Science 2011, 2012
Electrical Engineering / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Computer) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Commerce 2012, 2013, 2014, 2011
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Law 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Power) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Telecommunications) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Electrical Engineering (Telecommunications) / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software 2015, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Commerce 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Telecommunications 2010
Bachelor of Information Technology (Computer Science) 2010, 2011, 2012
Information Technology (Computer Science)/Arts 2012
Master of Engineering 2013, 2014, 2015
Master of Engineering (Electrical) 2011, 2012
Master of Engineering (Network) 2012
Master of Engineering (Power) 2011, 2012
Master of Professional Engineering (Electrical) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Master of Professional Engineering (Telecommunications) 2013, 2014, 2015
Master of Professional Engineering (Wireless) 2010, 2011, 2012
Computer Engineering / Commerce 2010
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Medical Science 2011, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Telecommunications) / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Telecommunications) / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Information Technology (Computer Science) / Science 2012

Course Goals

This unit contributes to the achievement of the following course goals:

Attribute Practiced Assessed
Design (Level 4) Yes 17.72%
Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 4) Yes 70.86%
Maths/Science Methods and Tools (Level 4) Yes 0%
Information Seeking (Level 2) No 0%
Communication (Level 2) Yes 5.72%
Project and Team Skills (Level 2) Yes 5.72%

These goals are selected from Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table which defines overall goals for courses where this unit is primarily offered. See Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table for details of the attributes and levels to be developed in the course as a whole. Percentage figures alongside each course goal provide a rough indication of their relative weighting in assessment for this unit. Note that not all goals are necessarily part of assessment. Some may be more about practice activity. See Learning outcomes for details of what is assessed in relation to each goal and Assessment for details of how the outcome is assessed. See Attributes for details of practice provided for each goal.