ELEC5204: Power Systems Analysis and Protection (2016 - Semester 1)

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Unit: ELEC5204: Power Systems Analysis and Protection (6 CP)
Mode: Normal-Day
On Offer: Yes
Level: Postgraduate
Faculty/School: School of Electrical & Information Engineering
Unit Coordinator/s: Dr Sathiakumar, Swamidoss
Session options: Semester 1
Versions for this Unit:
Campus: Camperdown/Darlington
Pre-Requisites: (ELEC3203 OR ELEC9203 OR ELEC5732) AND (ELEC3206 OR ELEC9206 OR ELEC5734).
Brief Handbook Description: This unit provides the basis for the analysis of electricity grids using symmetrical components theory. Such analysis theory is the basis for the understanding of electrical faults and the design of protection strategies to safeguard the electrical equipment, and maintain safety of the plant at the highest possible level.

The following specific topics are covered: The types and causes of power system faults; balanced faults and short circuit levels; an introduction to fault current transients in machines; symmetric components, sequence impedances and networks; the analysis of unsymmetrical faults. Review of the impact of faults on power system behaviour; issues affecting protection scheme characteristics and clearance times; the security and reliability of protection schemes; the need for protection redundancy and its implementation as local or remote backup; zones of protection and the need for zones to overlap; the analysis and application of over-current and distance relay protection schemes with particular reference to the protection of transmission lines.
Assumed Knowledge: The unit assumes basic knowledge of circuits, familiarity with basic mathematics, competence with basic circuit theory and an understanding of three phase systems, transformers, transmission lines and associated modeling and operation of such equipment.
Timetable: ELEC5204 Timetable
Time Commitment:
# Activity Name Hours per Week Sessions per Week Weeks per Semester
1 Lecture 2.00 1 13
2 Tutorial 1.00 1 12
3 Laboratory 2.00 1 12
T&L Activities: Tutorial: More detailed questions to develop better understanding and analysis techniques.

Laboratory: Hands on experience with power system behaviour and protection design.

Attributes listed here represent the key course goals (see Course Map tab) designated for this unit. The list below describes how these attributes are developed through practice in the unit. See Learning Outcomes and Assessment tabs for details of how these attributes are assessed.

Attribute Development Method Attribute Developed
Extensive design and analysis work is done in tutorials, labs, and assignment. Design (Level 4)
Gain an understanding of the basic concepts in electricity networks. It builds on the previous knowledge gained in circuits and power electronics and power systems. Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 4)
Gain an ability to apply their knowledge of circuit fundamentals to electricity networks analysis and protection fundamentals. Maths/Science Methods and Tools (Level 4)
Need to understand and follow lab procedures and conduct experiments under controlled conditions. Need to read IEEE and IET Research Papers and Articles on Industrial Standards and assimilate this knowledge in evaluating various solutions to protection problems. Information Seeking (Level 2)
Students need to work in groups in the labs. They need to write lab reports, as well as do some detailed analysis, short-curcuit analysis and protection and present it in the form of assignment reports. Communication (Level 2)
Group work in labs and tutorials. Project and Team Skills (Level 2)

For explanation of attributes and levels see Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table.

Learning outcomes are the key abilities and knowledge that will be assessed in this unit. They are listed according to the course goal supported by each. See Assessment Tab for details how each outcome is assessed.

Design (Level 4)
1. Ability to design basic protection schemes, drawing on principles and knowledge at hand, as well as other available resources to solve the problem to specifications.
Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 4)
2. Ability to demonstrate an understanding of symmetrical components theory and its application.
3. Proficiency in determining maximum and minimum short circuit levels in power networks using knowledge of principles and concepts developed throughout the course.
4. Capacity to apply knowledge of concepts and principles studied to demonstrate why protection systems are required and their respective functions to the extent of the material presented.
5. Ability to use a power system simulator to design, test and confirm protection requirements for a given system within the limits of the material presented.
Maths/Science Methods and Tools (Level 4)
6. Ability to demonstrate an understanding the functions of switch gear and other devices.
7. Ability to demonstrate a basic understanding electrical safety issues and systems earthing to the extent of the material presented.
Communication (Level 2)
8. Ability to write reports and present information to communicate engineering information clearly, concisely and accurately at a level commensurate with the expected technical knowledge level of the stakeholders involved.
Professional Conduct (Level 2)
9. Ability to incorporate professional standards for economical, environmental, social and safety issues into the design, implementation and operation of power systems by drawing on Australian codes and standards.
Assessment Methods:
# Name Group Weight Due Week Outcomes
1 Assignment Yes 20.00 Multiple Weeks 2, 3, 4, 8, 9,
2 Lab Report Yes 20.00 Multiple Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9,
3 Quiz No 10.00 Week 6 1, 2, 3, 4,
4 Final Exam No 50.00 Exam Period 1, 2, 3, 6, 7,
Assessment Description: Assignment: Assignments throughout the semester.

Lab Report: Laboratory Work with the power system simulator that offers a breadth of experimental work with the latest digital relays and some of the experiments are as follows: symmetrical faults, unsymmetrical faults, transient overvoltage, grading of overcurrent protection for three-phase faults, directional control of relay tripping, distance and zone protection, grid transformer differential protection, busbar protection, generator protection, auto-reclosing

Final Exam: End of Semester Examination
Grade Type Description
Standards Based Assessment Final grades in this unit are awarded at levels of HD for High Distinction, DI (previously D) for Distinction, CR for Credit, PS (previously P) for Pass and FA (previously F) for Fail as defined by University of Sydney Assessment Policy. Details of the Assessment Policy are available on the Policies website at http://sydney.edu.au/policies . Standards for grades in individual assessment tasks and the summative method for obtaining a final mark in the unit will be set out in a marking guide supplied by the unit coordinator.
Policies & Procedures: See the policies page of the faculty website at http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/student-policies/ for information regarding university policies and local provisions and procedures within the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies.
Prescribed Text/s: Note: Students are expected to have a personal copy of all books listed.
Recommended Reference/s: Note: References are provided for guidance purposes only. Students are advised to consult these books in the university library. Purchase is not required.
Note on Resources: No text required. Notes will be on the web

Note that the "Weeks" referred to in this Schedule are those of the official university semester calendar https://web.timetable.usyd.edu.au/calendar.jsp

Week Description
Week 1 Three-phase power systems, historical developments, characteristics influencing generation and transmission, environmental aspects of electrical energy generation, transmission and distribution systems, energy utilization, balanced three-phase and unbalanced three-phase systems, introduction to short circuit analysis and symmetrical component theory.
Week 2 Short circuit analysis techniques, synchronous machines, synchronous generator in parallel operation, the operation of a generator on infinite busbars, salient pole generators, per unit system, overhead line, underground cables, positive, negative and zero sequence networks
Week 3 Equivalent circuits and parameters of electricity networks, synchronous machines, armature reaction, steady-state salient pole rotor, transient analysis, asymmetry, machine reactances, negative sequence reactance, zero sequence reactance, direct and quadrature axis values, effect of saturation on machine reactances, transformer positive sequence equivalent circuits, transformer zero sequence equivalent circuits, auto-transformers, transformer impedances
Week 4 Overhead lines and cables, calculation of series impedance, calculation of shunt impedance, overhead line circuits with or without earth wires, OHL equivalent circuits, cable circuits, overhead line and cable data
Week 5 Current and voltage transformers, capacitor voltage transformers, errors, composite errors, transformer classes, optical instrument transformers, Electromechanical relays, static relays, digital relays, numerical relays
Week 6 Principles of time/current grading, standard I.D.M.T. overcurrent relays, combined I.D.M.T. and high set instantaneous overcurrent relays, very inverse overcurrent relays, Extremely Inverse overcurrent relays, Independent (definite) time overcurrent relays, Relay current setting, Relay time grading margin, calculation of phase fault overcurrent relay settings, directional phase fault overcurrent relays, Earth fault protection, Directional earth fault overcurrent protection, Earth fault protection
Assessment Due: Quiz
Week 7 scheme considerations
protection systems, Phase comparison protection
Unit protection of feeders, balanced voltage system, digital/Numerical current differential
Week 8 differential protection
Busbar protection requirements, types of protection system, system protection schemes, Differential protection principles, high impedance
Week 9 Transformer protection, winding faults, magnetising inrush, transformer overheating, transformer overcurrent protection, restricted earth fault protection, differential protection, combined differential and restricted earth fault schemes, earthing transformer protection, auto-transformer protection, tank-earth protection, oil and gas devices, transformer-feeder protection, condition monitoring of transformers
Week 10 Principles of distance relays, relationship between relay voltage and ZS/ZL ratio, zones of protection, distance relay characteristics, effect of source impedance and earthing methods
Week 11 direct-connected generators, differential protection of generator–transformer units, overcurrent protection, stator earth fault protection, overvoltage protection, undervoltage protection, low forward power/reverse power protection, unbalanced loading, under/overfrequency/overfluxing protection, rotor faults, loss of excitation protection, overheating, mechanical faults
Generator earthing, stator winding faults, stator winding protection, differential protection of
Week 12 motor protection, RTD temperature detection, undervoltage protection, loss-of-load protection, protection for synchronous motors
AC motor protection, thermal (Overload) protection, start/stall protection, short circuit protection, earth fault protection, negative phase sequence protection, wound rotor induction
Week 13 Revision
Exam Period Assessment Due: Final Exam

Course Relations

The following is a list of courses which have added this Unit to their structure.

Course Year(s) Offered
Electrical (Power) (till 2014) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Commerce 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Power) / Law 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Power) 2015
Electrical (Power) / Arts 2015
Electrical (Power) / Commerce 2015
Electrical (Power) / Medical Science 2015
Electrical (Power) / Project Management 2015
Electrical (Power) / Science 2015
Electrical (Power) / Law 2015
Master of Engineering (Power) 2011, 2012
Computer Engineering (till 2010) 2010
Electrical (till 2014) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering / Commerce 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Bioelectronics) (till 2012) 2011, 2012
Electrical Engineering (Bioelectronics) / Arts 2011, 2012
Electrical Engineering (Bioelectronics) / Science 2011, 2012
Electrical Engineering (Bioelectronics) / Law 2012
Electrical Engineering / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Computer) (till 2014) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Commerce 2012, 2013, 2014, 2011
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Law 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical (Telecommunications) (till 2014) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Telecommunications) / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical 2015, 2016
Electrical / Arts 2016
Electrical / Commerce 2016
Electrical / Medical Science 2016
Electrical / Music Studies 2016
Electrical / Project Management 2016
Electrical / Science 2016
Electrical (Computer) 2015
Electrical / Law 2016
Electrical (Telecommunications) 2015
Software 2015, 2016
Software / Arts 2016
Software / Commerce 2016
Software / Medical Science 2016
Software / Music Studies 2016
Software / Project Management 2016
Software / Science 2016
Software / Law 2016
Software Engineering (till 2014) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Commerce 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Software Engineering / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Telecommunications (till 2010) 2010
Bachelor of Information Technology (Computer Science) 2014 and earlier 2010, 2011, 2012
Information Technology (Computer Science)/Arts 2012
Master of Engineering 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
Master of Engineering (Electrical) 2011, 2012
Master of Engineering (Network) 2012
Master of Engineering (Wireless) 2012
Master of Professional Engineering (Electrical) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016
Master of Professional Engineering (Power) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016
Computer Engineering / Commerce 2010
Electrical Engineering (Computer) / Medical Science 2011, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Telecommunications) / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Electrical Engineering (Telecommunications) / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Information Technology (Computer Science) / Science 2012

Course Goals

This unit contributes to the achievement of the following course goals:

Attribute Practiced Assessed
Design (Level 4) Yes 14%
Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 4) Yes 50.5%
Maths/Science Methods and Tools (Level 4) Yes 25%
Information Seeking (Level 2) Yes 0%
Communication (Level 2) Yes 4%
Professional Conduct (Level 2) No 6.5%
Project and Team Skills (Level 2) Yes 0%

These goals are selected from Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table which defines overall goals for courses where this unit is primarily offered. See Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table for details of the attributes and levels to be developed in the course as a whole. Percentage figures alongside each course goal provide a rough indication of their relative weighting in assessment for this unit. Note that not all goals are necessarily part of assessment. Some may be more about practice activity. See Learning outcomes for details of what is assessed in relation to each goal and Assessment for details of how the outcome is assessed. See Attributes for details of practice provided for each goal.