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AERO3560: Flight Mechanics 1 (2019 - Semester 2)

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Unit: AERO3560: Flight Mechanics 1 (6 CP)
Mode: Normal-Day
On Offer: Yes
Level: Senior
Faculty/School: School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering
Unit Coordinator/s: Dr Vio, Gareth
Session options: Semester 2
Versions for this Unit:
Site(s) for this Unit: http://web.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/AERO3560
Campus: Camperdown/Darlington
Pre-Requisites: AMME2500.
Co-Requisites: AMME3500.
Brief Handbook Description: This unit aims to develop an understanding of aircraft longitudinal equilibrium, static stability, dynamic stability and response. Students will develop an understanding of the importance and significance of flight stability, will gain skills in dynamic system analysis and will learn mathematical tools used for prediction of aircraft flight behaviour. Students will gain skills in problem solving in the area of flight vehicle motion, and learn the fundamentals of flight simulation.

At the end of this unit students will be able to understand: aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium; the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions; the significance of flight stability and its impact of aircraft operations and pilot workload; the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources; the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability; the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles. Students will also be able to model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques and analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and to extract stability characteristics.

Unit content will include static longitudinal aircraft stability: origin of symmetric forces and moments; static and manoeuvring longitudinal stability, equilibrium and control of rigid aircraft; aerodynamic load effects of wings, stabilisers, fuselages and power plants; trailing edge aerodynamic controls; trimmed equilibrium condition; static margin; effect on static stability of free and reversible controls.
Assumed Knowledge: This Unit of Study builds on basic mechanics and aerodynamics material covered in previous Units and focuses it towards the analysis and understanding of aircraft flight mechanics. It is expected that students have satisfactorily completed the following material: ENGG1802" >ENGG1802 Engineering Mechanics: Forces, moments, equilibrium, momentum, energy, linear and angular motion. AMME2500" >AMME2500 Engineering Dynamics 1: Mechanisms, kinematics, frames of reference, mass and inertia, dynamics. If you struggled to pass AMME2500" >AMME2500 and/or ENGG1802" >ENGG1802, you should spend some time revising the material of those Units of Study early in the semester.
Timetable: AERO3560 Timetable
Time Commitment:
# Activity Name Hours per Week Sessions per Week Weeks per Semester
1 Lecture 3.00 2 13
2 Tutorial 2.00 1 13
3 Independent Study 6.00 13
4 Laboratory 2.00 1 1
T&L Activities: Lecture: This Unit of Study involves 5 hours of teaching contact per week. At times when there are no active assignments, there may be up to 5 hours per week of lectures. When assignments are active, there will be fewer hours of lectures and more of tutorials in the PC lab. Average contact will be three hours of lectures per week and two hours of tutorials per week. Lectures normally involve one 2 hour session and one 1 hour session.

Tutorial: Tutorials will average 2 hours per week and will be conducted in the computer laboratory. These involve instruction on methods and approaches to solution of assessable problems.

Independent Study: Problem based learning approach via solution of assessable problems. On the basis of 1 hr per week per CP

Laboratory: Flight simulation laboratory in the AMME VSFS involving demonstration of aircraft stability and handling qualities. This is experiential learning used to reinforce problem based learning of problems associated with assignments. Note: This is done towards the end of Semester 2 subject to availability of the simulator.

Learning outcomes are the key abilities and knowledge that will be assessed in this unit. They are listed according to the course goal supported by each. See Assessment Tab for details how each outcome is assessed.

(6) Communication and Inquiry/ Research (Level 2)
1. Develop capabilities in written communication through preparation of reports
(8) Professional Effectiveness and Ethical Conduct (Level 3)
2. Develop skills in group interaction and interactive problem solving
(4) Design (Level 3)
3. To analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and to extract stability characteristics.
4. To model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques.
(2) Engineering/ IT Specialisation (Level 3)
5. To understand aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium.
6. To understand the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions.
7. To understand the significance of flight stability and its impact of aircraft operations and pilot workload.
8. To understand the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources.
9. To understand the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability.
10. To understand the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles.
Assessment Methods:
# Name Group Weight Due Week Outcomes
1 Assignment 1* No 10.00 Week 5 1, 3, 4, 5,
2 Assignment 2* No 15.00 Week 8 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
3 Assignment 3* Yes 15.00 Week 11 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10,
4 Assignment 4* Yes 10.00 Week 13 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10,
5 Final Exam No 50.00 Exam Period 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
Assessment Description: * indicates an assessment task that must be repeated if a student misses it due to special consideration.

Assignment 1: Coordinate Systems and Transformations

Assignment 2: Longitudinal flight stability and control

Assignment 3: Major Project: Flight Simulation

Assignment 4: Equations of Motion, Stability Analysis and Handling Qualities

Final Exam: Will cover all material as scheduled. It is a requirement that to pass the course you must pass the exam.

o Minimum performance criteria: You must pass the final exam to pass the unit of study, regardless of the sum of your individual component marks.

o Mark moderation: There may be statistically defensible moderation when combining the marks from each component to ensure consistency of marking between markers, and alignment of final grades with unit outcomes.

o Penalties for lateness: Penalties for late submission will be applied at a rate of 10% per day.
Grading:
Grade Type Description
Standards Based Assessment Final grades in this unit are awarded at levels of HD for High Distinction, DI (previously D) for Distinction, CR for Credit, PS (previously P) for Pass and FA (previously F) for Fail as defined by University of Sydney Assessment Policy. Details of the Assessment Policy are available on the Policies website at http://sydney.edu.au/policies . Standards for grades in individual assessment tasks and the summative method for obtaining a final mark in the unit will be set out in a marking guide supplied by the unit coordinator.
Policies & Procedures: See the policies page of the faculty website at http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/student-policies/ for information regarding university policies and local provisions and procedures within the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies.
Recommended Reference/s: Note: References are provided for guidance purposes only. Students are advised to consult these books in the university library. Purchase is not required.
  • Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls
  • Dynamics of Atmospheric Flight
  • Dynamics of Flight: Stability and Control
  • Flight Stability and Automatic Control
  • USAF Stability and Control Datcom
Online Course Content: http://web.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/AERO3560
Note on Resources: There is no specific text book required for this course, though Nelson is the preferred reference book. Reference material sufficient to pass this course is provided in the Lecture Notes for this course that can be found under the Flight Mechanics teaching page on the department`s web site http://www.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/flightm/aero3500/aero3500.html

Note that the "Weeks" referred to in this Schedule are those of the official university semester calendar https://web.timetable.usyd.edu.au/calendar.jsp

Week Description
Week 1 Basic aerodynamic relationships.
Axis systems and state variable definitions.
Aircraft component and control identification.
Aircraft axis and state definitions:
Week 2 Introduction to stability concepts:
Mean aerodynamic chord and aerodynamic centre.
Wing contribution to longitudinal stability.
Equilibrium and Phase plane concepts.
Aerodynamic forces and moments.
Week 3 Control effects on equilibrium.
Neutral point and Static Margin.
Total longitudinal stability.
Contribution of the tail.
Longitudinal aircraft stability:
Week 4 Stick forces and trim.
Stick-fixed and stick-free stability.
Longitudinal aircraft stability cont'd:
Week 5 Axis systems and coordinate transformations.
General equations of aircraft motion:
Newton and Euler laws of motion.
Assessment Due: Assignment 1*
Week 6 General nonlinear equations of motion in six DOF.
General equations of aircraft motion cont'd:
Moments and products of inertia.
Week 7 Aerodynamic force and moment derivative definitions.
Control force and moment derivatives.
Manifestations of aerodynamic force and moment derivatives.
Sources of aerodynamic forces:
Week 8 Linear equations of motion.
Linearisation about an equilibrium.
Linearised equations of aircraft motion:
Assessment Due: Assignment 2*
Week 9 Eigen vector and Argand diagrams.
Eigen values and modes of motions.
Lateral-directional equations of motion.
Longitudinal equations of motion.
Relationships with time-domain behaviour.
Longitudinal and lateral-directional motion subsystems:
Week 10 Order and flow of simulation tasks.
State-space representations. Flight simulation architectures and procedures.
Integration techniques.
Time-domain solution of equations of motion:
Week 11 Major project – flight simulation.
Assessment Due: Assignment 3*
Week 12 Major project – flight simulation.
Week 13 Summary and sample problems.
Assessment Due: Assignment 4*
Exam Period Assessment Due: Final Exam

Course Relations

The following is a list of courses which have added this Unit to their structure.

Course Year(s) Offered
Aeronautical / Science (Medical Science Stream) 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical (till 2014) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering / Commerce 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering / Law 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering (Space) / Commerce 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical (Space) (till 2014) 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering (Space) / Arts 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering (Space) / Medical Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering (Space) / Project Management 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering (Space) / Science 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Engineering (Space) / Law 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Aeronautical Mid-Year 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical/ Project Management 2019, 2020
Aeronautical 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical / Arts 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical / Commerce 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical / Medical Science 2015, 2016, 2017
Aeronautical / Music Studies 2016, 2017
Aeronautical / Project Management 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018
Aeronautical / Science 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical/Science (Health) 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical / Law 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
Aeronautical (Space) 2015
Aeronautical (Space) / Arts 2015
Aeronautical (Space) / Commerce 2015
Aeronautical (Space) / Medical Science 2015
Aeronautical (Space) / Project Management 2015
Aeronautical (Space) / Science 2015
Aeronautical (Space) / Law 2015

Course Goals

This unit contributes to the achievement of the following course goals:

Attribute Practiced Assessed
(6) Communication and Inquiry/ Research (Level 2) No 5%
(7) Project and Team Skills (Level 3) No 0%
(8) Professional Effectiveness and Ethical Conduct (Level 3) No 2.5%
(5) Interdisciplinary, Inclusiveness, Influence (Level 3) No 0%
(4) Design (Level 3) No 26%
(2) Engineering/ IT Specialisation (Level 3) No 66.5%
(3) Problem Solving and Inventiveness (Level 3) No 0%
(1) Maths/ Science Methods and Tools (Level 3) No 0%

These goals are selected from Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table 2018 which defines overall goals for courses where this unit is primarily offered. See Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table 2018 for details of the attributes and levels to be developed in the course as a whole. Percentage figures alongside each course goal provide a rough indication of their relative weighting in assessment for this unit. Note that not all goals are necessarily part of assessment. Some may be more about practice activity. See Learning outcomes for details of what is assessed in relation to each goal and Assessment for details of how the outcome is assessed. See Attributes for details of practice provided for each goal.